Mounce on Immediately in Galatians 1:16

This week’s Monday with Mounce looks at the word “immediately / εὐθέως” in Galatians 1:16. He argues that it can mean the same as εὐθύς; it doesn’t just mean immediately in the urgent sense but in the “sense of the next thing that was done.” As a consequence he believes the NLT rendering to be most accurate: “When this happened, I did not rush out to consult with any human being.”

This approach seems reasonable as he lists a number of other passages where this meaning would make sense. One aspect of semantic range that I haven’t seen commented on with regard to koine Greek is how location changes meaning. Perhaps we simply don’t have enough extant literature to come to any conclusions in this regard but it is certainly worth consideration. For example, in some locations (especially big cities) people are more time conscious and immediately means now! In other places time is more elastic and immediately could mean anything from an hour to a week. I guess the same applies to cable installers.

One other comment on his article in relation to “perishable.” I not sure I agree with his comment that pigs die rather than perish. Food perishes and pigs are valuable food. How many times have your heard food banks, etc. making an appeal for donations of non-perishable food?

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Luther and Galatians

As I’m sure you’re aware, 2017 is the 500th anniversary of Martin Luther’s 95 theses and the beginning of the Protestant Reformation. Luther had a dynamic relationship with Galatians and published numerous “commentaries” on it. I thought it would be fun to see how many recent articles and books look at the relationship of Luther and Galatians. I was a little overwhelmed with the number of resources that came up. If you’re interested in an informative overview I would recommend the introductions in the two Luther’s Works volumes edited by  Jaroslav Pelikan and Walter A. Hansen listed below. For your edification here is a list of what came across my path, alphabetical by author:

[Updated on October 17 with additional resources from comments and elsewhere]

Anderson, Marvin W. “Luther’s sola fide in Italy, 1542-1551.” Church History. 38:1 (1969): 25-42.

Artinian, Robert G. “Luther After the Stendahl/Sanders Revolution: A Responsive Evaluation of Luther’s View of First-Century Judaism in His 1535 Commentary on Galatians.” Trinity Journal. 27:1 (2006): 77-99.

Augustijn, Cornelis. “Erasmus von Rotterdam im Galaterbriefkommentar Luthers von 1519.”   Lutherjahrbuch. 49 (1982): 115-132.

Barclay, John M.G. “The Text of Galatians and the Theology of Luther.” In, Reformation Readings of Paul: Explorations in History and Exegesis. Edited by Michael Allen and Jonathan Lindbaugh. IVP Academic, 2015. 49-72.

Bertram, Robert W. “Radical Dialectic between Faith and Works in Luther’s Lectures on Galatians (1535).” In, Luther for an Ecumenical Age; Essays in Commemoration of the 450th Anniversary of the Reformation. Edited by Carl Meyer. St Louis: Concordia, 1967. 219-241.

Bird, Michael F. “What if Martin Luther Had Read the Dead Sea Scrolls? Historical Particularity and Theological Interpretation in Pauline Theology: Galatians as a Test Case.” Journal of Theological Interpretation. 3:1(2009): 107-125.

Blank, Rudolph Henry. “Six Theses Concerning Freedom in Christ and Liberation: Liberation in Galatians, Luther, and Liberation Theology.” Concordia Journal. 20:3 (1994): 236-260.

Bluhm, Heinz S. “Emser’s ‘Emendation’ of Luther’s New Testament: Galatians I.” MLN. 81:4 (1966): 370-97.

Bluhm, Heinz S. “Luther and the First Printed English Bible: Epistle to the Galatians.” Anglican Theological Review. 40:4 (1958): 264-294.

Bluhm, Heinz S. Luther, Translator of Paul: Studies in Romans and Galatians. New York: Peter Lang Publishing, 1985.

Bluhm, Heinz S. “The Rendering of Galatians 3:23-4:2 in the Printed High German Plenaria and in Luther’s Christmas Postil.” Journal of English and Germanic Philology. 64 (1965): 213-231.

Bluhm, Heinz S. “Sources of Luther’s Septembertestament: Galatians.” In, Luther for an Ecumenical Age; Essays in Commemoration of the 450th Anniversary of the Reformation. Edited by Carl Meyer. St Louis: Concordia Pub House, 1967. 144-171.

Bornkamm, Karin. Luthers Auslegungen des Galaterbriefs von 1519 und 1531; ein Vergleich. (Arbeiten zur Kirchengeschichte; 35) Berlin, De Gruyter, 1963.

Camden, Vera J. “‘Most Fit for a Wounded Conscience’: The Place of Luther’s ‘Commentary on Galatians’ in Grace Abounding.” Renaissance Quarterly. 50:3 (1997): 819-49.

Camden, Vera J. “‘Most Fit for a Wounded Conscience’: The Place of Luther’s ‘Commentary on Galatians’ in Grace Abounding.” In, Literature Criticism from 1400 to 1800, Volume 150. Edited by Thomas J. Schoenberg and Lawrence J. Trudeau. Farmington Hills: Gale, 2008. 215-229.

Chester, Stephen. “It is No Longer I Who Live: Justification by Faith and Participation in Christ in Martin Luther’s Exegesis of Galatians.” New Testament Studies. 55:3 (2009): 315-337.

Chester, Stephen J. “Faith Working Through Love (Galatians 5:6): The Role of Human Deeds in Salvation in Luther and Calvin’s Exegesis.” The Covenant Quarterly. 72:3-4 (2014): 41-54.

Dubbelman, Samuel J. “The Darkness of Faith: A Study in Martin Luther’s 1535 Galatians Commentary.” Trinity Journal. ns 37:2 (2016): 213-232.

Ebeling, Gerhard. “Fides occidit rationem: Ein Aspekt der theologia crucis in Luthers Auslegung von Gal 3,6.” In Theologia Crucis – Signum Crucis: Festschrift für Erich Dinkler zum 70. Geburtstag. Edited by Erich Dinkler, Carl Andresen and Gunter Klein. Tübingen: J C B Mohr, 1979. 97-135.

Feld, Helmut. “Lutherus Apostolus: kirchliches Amt und apostolische Verantwortung in der Galaterbrief-Auslegung Martin Luthers.” In Wort Gottes in der Zeit: Festschrift Karl Hermann Schelkle zum 65sten Geburstag dargebracht von Kollegen, Freunden, Schülern. Edited by Helmut Feld and Josef Nolte. Düsseldorf: Patmos-Verlag, 1973. 288-304.

Femiano, S. “Holy Spirit in Luther’s Commentary on Galatians.” Canadian Journal of Theology. 8:1 (1962): 43-48.

Fink, David C. “Martin Luther’s Reading of Galatians.” In, Reformation Readings of Paul: Explorations in History and Exegesis. Edited by Michael Allen and Jonathan Lindbaugh. IVP Academic, 2015. 23-48.

Garcia, Javier A. “A Critique of Mannermaa on Luther and Galatians.” Lutheran Quarterly. ns 27:1 (2013): 33-55.

Garcia, Javier A. “‘Not an Idle Quality of an Empty Husk in the Heart’”: A Critique of Tuomo Mannermaa on Luther and Galatians.” In, Galatians and Christian Theology: Justification, the Gospel, and Ethics in Paul’s Letter. Edited by Mark W. Elliott, et al. Baker Academic, 2014. 132-142.

Genderen, J van. “Luthers versie op wet en evangelie: met name in het grote commentaar op de brief aan de galaten.” In, Luther en het gereformeerd Protestantisme. The Hague: Uitgeverij Boekencentrum B V, 1982. 249-282.

Gritsch, Eric W. “Martin Luther’s Commentary on Gal 5,2-24, 1519 (WA 2,574-597) and Sermon on Gal 4,1-7, 1522 (WA 10 I 1,325-378).” In, Freiheit als Liebe bei Martin Luther (Freedom as Love in Martin Luther). Edited by Dennis D. Bielfeldt. Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang, 1995. 105-111.

Gerdes, Oder Hayo. “Luther und Augustin uber den Streit zwischen Petrus und Paulus zu Antiochien (Gal 2, 11ff).” Luther—Jahrbuch. 29 (1962): 9-24.

Hafemann, Scott. “Yaein: Yes and No to Luther’s Reading of Galatians 3:6-14.” In, Galatians and Christian Theology: Justification, the Gospel, and Ethics in Paul’s Letter. Edited by Mark W. Elliott, et al. Baker Academic, 2014. 117-131.

Hagen, Kenneth. “Did Peter Err? The Text is the Best Judge: Luther on Gal 2:11.” In, Augustine, the Harvest, and Theology (1300-1650): Essays Dedicated to Heiko Augustinus Oberman in Honor of His Sixtieth Birthday. Edited by Kenneth Hagen. Leiden: E J Brill, 1990. 110-126.

Hagen, Kenneth. Luther’s Approach to Scripture as Seen in His “Commentaries” on Galatians, 1519-1538. Tübingen: J.C.B. Mohr, 1993. 3161459776, 9783161459771.

Holmes, Arthur B. “Conscience as Soteriological Battlefield: The Concept of Conscientia Operative in Luther’s Galatians Lectures of 1531.” Drew Gateway. 42:1 (1971): 51.

Hultgren, Arland J. “Luther on Galatians.” Word & World. 20:3 (2000): 232-238.

Jacobi, Thorsten. “Christen heissen Freie”: Luthers Freiheitsaussagen in den Jahren 1515-1519. (Beiträge zur historischen Theologie; 101) Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck, 1997.

Just, Arthur A. Jr. “The Faith of Christ: A Lutheran Appropriation of Richard Hays’s Proposal.” Concordia Theological Quarterly. 70:1 (2006): 3-15.

http://www.ctsfw.net/media/pdfs/justfaithofchrist.pdf

Kim, Sun-young. Luther on Faith and Love: Christ and the Law in the 1535 Galatians Commentary. Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 2014. 145148772X, 9781451487725.

Kleinknecht, Hermann. Gemeinschaft ohne Bedingungen: Kirche und Rechtfertigung in Luthers grosser Galaterbrief-Vorlesung von 1531. (Calwer theologische Monographien. Reihe B,

Systematische Theologie und Kirchengeschichte; 7) Stuttgart: Calwer Verlag, 1981. 3766806793.

Koivisto, Jussi Kalervo. “Martin Luther’s Conception of fascinare (Gal. 3:1).” Biblical Interpretation. 19:4-5 (2011): 471-495.

Kolb, Robert. “The Influence of Luther’s Galatians Commentary of 1535 on Later Sixteenth-Century Lutheran Commentaries on Galatians.” In, Archiv für Reformationsgeschichte. 84 (1993): 156-184.

Krejberg, Jens S. “Lovens ‘rette brug’ i den store Galaterbrevskommentar.” Martin Luther – i kamp for troen. Fredericia: Lohses Forlag, 1983. 60-72.

Kunze, Johannes. Erasmus und Luther: Der Einfluss des Erasmus auf die Kommentierung des Galaterbriefes und der Psalmen durch Luther 1519-1521. (Arbeiten zur historischen und systematischen Theologie) Lit Publishing, 2000. 3825848884, 9783825848880

Linebaugh, Jonathan A. “The Christo-Centrism of Faith in Christ: Martin Luther’s Reading of Galatians 2.16,19-20.” New Testament Studies. 59:4 (2013): 535-544.

Luther, Martin. Luther’s Works Volume 26. Lectures on Galatians 1535: Chapters 1-4. Edited by Jaroslav Pelikan and Walter A. Hansen. Translated by Jaroslav Pelikan. St. Loius: Concordia, 1963.

Luther, Martin. Luther’s Works Volume 27. Lectures on Galatians 1535: Chapters 5-6. Lectures on Galatians 1519: Chapters 1-6. Edited by Jaroslav Pelikan and Walter A. Hansen. Translated by Jaroslav Pelikan and Richard Jungkuntz. St. Loius: Concordia, 1964.

Mannermaa, Tuomo. Christ Present in Faith: Luther’s View of Justification. Minneapolis: Fortress. 2005.

Manns, Peter. “Absolute and Incarnate Faith–Luther on Justification in the Galatians’ Commentary of 1531-1535.” In Catholic Scholars Dialogue with Luther. Edited by Jared Wicks. Chicago: Loyola University Press, 1970. 121-156.

Maschke, Timothy. “The Authority of Scripture: Luther’s Approach to Allegory in Galatians.” Logia. 4:2 (1995): 25-31.

Mau, Rudolf. “Liebe als gelebte Freiheit der Christen: Luthers Auslegung von G 5,13-24 im Kommentar von 1519.” Lutherjahrbuch. 59 (1992): 11-37.

Parker, Thomas D. “The Interpretation of Scripture I. A Comparison of Calvin and Luther on Galatians.” Interpretation. 17:1 (1963): 61-75.

Parry, David. “John Bunyan and Edwin Sandys on Luther’s Galatians Commentary.” Notes and Queries. 61 (259) (3) ( 2014): 377-380.

Patkus, Ronald Dennis. “Biblical Commentary as Reformation Commodity: The Role of the Paratext in Luther’s Galatians.” Reformation. 13 (2008): 51-75.

Payne, J. Barton. “The Significance of Lutheranizing Changes in Erasmus’ Interpretation of Paul’s Letters to the Romans and the Galatians.” In, Histoire de l’exégèse au XVIe siècle: Textes du Colloque International, Genève, 1976. (Etudes de philologie et d’histoire; 34). Edited by  Olivier Fatio, and Pierre Fraenkel. Geneva: Librairie Droz, 1978. 312-330.

Peura, Simo. “Iustitia christiana in Luthers später Auslegung des Galaterbriefs (1531/1535).” Lutherjahrbuch. 71 (2004): 179-210.

Porter, Lawrence B. “Luther on Church Unity: The Commentary on Galatians (1535).” Mid-Stream. 20:2 (1981): 159-176.

Rosebrock, Matthew. “Luther’s Visual Theology: The Lectures on Galatians and Cranach’s Law and Gospel Paintings.” Concordia Journal. 42:4 (2016): 332-339.

Schott, Erdmann. “Lex paedagogus noster fuit in Christo Jesu (Vulgata): Zu Luthers Auslegung von Gal 3:24.” Theologische Literaturzeitung. 95:8 (1970): 561-570.

Seifrid, Mark A. “Paul, Luther, and Justification in Gal 2:15-21.” Westminster Theological Journal. 65:2 (2003): 215-230.

Steindl, Helmut. “Gott, Mensch und Gesetz: zur Unerfüllbarkeit des Gesetzes nach Luthers grosser Galaterbriefvorlesung.” Freiburger Zeitschrift für Philosophie und Theologie. 30:1-2 (1983): 385-401.

Strelow, Luisivan V. “The Relationship of Christ and Faith in Luther’s Great Galatians Commentary (1531/1535), Section 2:16-21.” Concordia Seminary; S.T.M. Thesis, 1991

Taube, Roselies. Gott und das Ich: erörtert in einer Auseinandersetzung mit Luthers Lehre über Glaube und Liebe in seinem Galater-Kommentar (1531/35). (Europäische Hochschulschriften. Reihe XXIII, Theologie; 259) New York: P. Lang, 1986.

**Vind, Anna. “Luther’s Commentary on Galatians 1519.” Lutherjahrbuch. 80 (2013): 248-251.

Volz, Hans. “Eine neue studentische Nachschrift von Luthers erster Galaterbriefvorlesung von 1516/17.” Zeitschrift für Kirchengeschichte. 66:1-2 (1954-1955): 72-96.

Wengert, Timothy. “Martin Luther on Galatians 3:6-14: Justification by Curses and Blessings.” In, Galatians and Christian Theology: Justification, the Gospel, and Ethics in Paul’s Letter. Edited by Mark W. Elliott, et al. Baker Academic, 2014. 91-116.

Croatian language articles

It is unfortunately quite difficult to access non-English resources with regard to Galatians. Although English has become something of a lingua franca in the biblical studies world there is still much scholarship published in other languages. Thus I was excited to come across this European website that lists numerous articles that have English abstracts as well as the original Croatian article. A couple of them also have an English version available alongside the original. I hope some might find this helpful. Let me know if you know of similar websites for other languages.

Yale ABC – Martyn on Galatians for $2.99

Logos has several Yale Anchor Bible commentaries on sale this month. Fitzmyer’s Romans volume is free and most importantly for us, J. Louis Martyn’s Galatians volume is available for US $2.99. Click on the direct link or head on over to their free book of the month page and get them all.

For those of you unfamiliar with Martyn he taught at Union Theological Seminary in New York City from 1967 until his retirement in 1987. His Galatians commentary was published in 1997. For more information you can read Beverly Gaventa’s tribute written after his death in 2015.

Durham Dissertations on Galatians

I see that two Durham students completed dissertations related to Galatians this year. Unfortunately, both of them are under and author-imposed embargos. You can either wait a year or three or head on over to read the abstracts:

Tedder, Samuel John. Children of Laughter and the Re-Creation of Humanity: The Theological Vision and Logic of Paul’s Letter to the Galatians from the Vantage Point of 4:21-5:1. PhD; Durham University, 2017. http://etheses.dur.ac.uk/12219/

Griggs, Lowell Robert. God the Life-Giver: 4 Maccabees, 4 Ezra, and Paul’s Letter to the Galatians in Conversation from the Vantage Point of 4:21-5:1. PhD; Durham University, 2017. http://etheses.dur.ac.uk/12074/

Gupta teaching on Galatians at Regent next summer

I see on Nijay Gupta’s blog that he will be teaching Galatians at Regent College in Vancouver in the summer of 2018. I took advanced exegesis in Galatians with Gordon Fee who was writing his Galatians commentary for the Pentecostal commentary at that time.

Gupta also mentions that he’s working on several related projects including a “commentary on Galatians, a monograph on Paul’s language of faith, and a reading companion to the Greek text of Galatians (and related texts from the LXX).” Sounds very exciting and I look forward to seeing them published.

One in Christ Jesus: Essays on Early Christianity and “All That Jazz.”

CASCADE_TemplateMatson, David Lertis and K.C. Richardson, eds. One in Christ Jesus: Essays on Early Christianity and “All That Jazz,” in Honor of S. Scott Bartchy. Eugene: Wipf and Stock, 2014. 1625641745, 9781625641748.

This book has a number of articles that relate directly to Galatians which I have listed below. You can also read the first few on the publisher’s website.

Russell, A. Sue. “Galatians 3:28 beyond Status and Role: Living Anti-Structurally within Structure.” 1-19.

Stegemann, Wolfgang. “Hierachisierung und Relativierung multipler Identitäten in Galater 3:28.” 20-34.

Duling, Dennis C. “Social-Scientific Comments on ‘Neither Judean nor Greek’ (Gal 3:28).” 35-68.

Adewuya, J. Ayodeji. “Galatians 3:28 and the African Story.” 184-198.

Mason, Robert James. “Galatians 3:28: An Aspect of Eschatological Asceticism in Paul.” 222-239.