Tag Archives: Galatians

Luther and Galatians

As I’m sure you’re aware, 2017 is the 500th anniversary of Martin Luther’s 95 theses and the beginning of the Protestant Reformation. Luther had a dynamic relationship with Galatians and published numerous “commentaries” on it. I thought it would be fun to see how many recent articles and books look at the relationship of Luther and Galatians. I was a little overwhelmed with the number of resources that came up. If you’re interested in an informative overview I would recommend the introductions in the two Luther’s Works volumes edited by  Jaroslav Pelikan and Walter A. Hansen listed below. For your edification here is a list of what came across my path, alphabetical by author:

[Updated on October 17 with additional resources from comments and elsewhere]

Anderson, Marvin W. “Luther’s sola fide in Italy, 1542-1551.” Church History. 38:1 (1969): 25-42.

Artinian, Robert G. “Luther After the Stendahl/Sanders Revolution: A Responsive Evaluation of Luther’s View of First-Century Judaism in His 1535 Commentary on Galatians.” Trinity Journal. 27:1 (2006): 77-99.

Augustijn, Cornelis. “Erasmus von Rotterdam im Galaterbriefkommentar Luthers von 1519.”   Lutherjahrbuch. 49 (1982): 115-132.

Barclay, John M.G. “The Text of Galatians and the Theology of Luther.” In, Reformation Readings of Paul: Explorations in History and Exegesis. Edited by Michael Allen and Jonathan Lindbaugh. IVP Academic, 2015. 49-72.

Bertram, Robert W. “Radical Dialectic between Faith and Works in Luther’s Lectures on Galatians (1535).” In, Luther for an Ecumenical Age; Essays in Commemoration of the 450th Anniversary of the Reformation. Edited by Carl Meyer. St Louis: Concordia, 1967. 219-241.

Bird, Michael F. “What if Martin Luther Had Read the Dead Sea Scrolls? Historical Particularity and Theological Interpretation in Pauline Theology: Galatians as a Test Case.” Journal of Theological Interpretation. 3:1(2009): 107-125.

Blank, Rudolph Henry. “Six Theses Concerning Freedom in Christ and Liberation: Liberation in Galatians, Luther, and Liberation Theology.” Concordia Journal. 20:3 (1994): 236-260.

Bluhm, Heinz S. “Emser’s ‘Emendation’ of Luther’s New Testament: Galatians I.” MLN. 81:4 (1966): 370-97.

Bluhm, Heinz S. “Luther and the First Printed English Bible: Epistle to the Galatians.” Anglican Theological Review. 40:4 (1958): 264-294.

Bluhm, Heinz S. Luther, Translator of Paul: Studies in Romans and Galatians. New York: Peter Lang Publishing, 1985.

Bluhm, Heinz S. “The Rendering of Galatians 3:23-4:2 in the Printed High German Plenaria and in Luther’s Christmas Postil.” Journal of English and Germanic Philology. 64 (1965): 213-231.

Bluhm, Heinz S. “Sources of Luther’s Septembertestament: Galatians.” In, Luther for an Ecumenical Age; Essays in Commemoration of the 450th Anniversary of the Reformation. Edited by Carl Meyer. St Louis: Concordia Pub House, 1967. 144-171.

Bornkamm, Karin. Luthers Auslegungen des Galaterbriefs von 1519 und 1531; ein Vergleich. (Arbeiten zur Kirchengeschichte; 35) Berlin, De Gruyter, 1963.

Camden, Vera J. “‘Most Fit for a Wounded Conscience’: The Place of Luther’s ‘Commentary on Galatians’ in Grace Abounding.” Renaissance Quarterly. 50:3 (1997): 819-49.

Camden, Vera J. “‘Most Fit for a Wounded Conscience’: The Place of Luther’s ‘Commentary on Galatians’ in Grace Abounding.” In, Literature Criticism from 1400 to 1800, Volume 150. Edited by Thomas J. Schoenberg and Lawrence J. Trudeau. Farmington Hills: Gale, 2008. 215-229.

Chester, Stephen. “It is No Longer I Who Live: Justification by Faith and Participation in Christ in Martin Luther’s Exegesis of Galatians.” New Testament Studies. 55:3 (2009): 315-337.

Chester, Stephen J. “Faith Working Through Love (Galatians 5:6): The Role of Human Deeds in Salvation in Luther and Calvin’s Exegesis.” The Covenant Quarterly. 72:3-4 (2014): 41-54.

Dubbelman, Samuel J. “The Darkness of Faith: A Study in Martin Luther’s 1535 Galatians Commentary.” Trinity Journal. ns 37:2 (2016): 213-232.

Ebeling, Gerhard. “Fides occidit rationem: Ein Aspekt der theologia crucis in Luthers Auslegung von Gal 3,6.” In Theologia Crucis – Signum Crucis: Festschrift für Erich Dinkler zum 70. Geburtstag. Edited by Erich Dinkler, Carl Andresen and Gunter Klein. Tübingen: J C B Mohr, 1979. 97-135.

Feld, Helmut. “Lutherus Apostolus: kirchliches Amt und apostolische Verantwortung in der Galaterbrief-Auslegung Martin Luthers.” In Wort Gottes in der Zeit: Festschrift Karl Hermann Schelkle zum 65sten Geburstag dargebracht von Kollegen, Freunden, Schülern. Edited by Helmut Feld and Josef Nolte. Düsseldorf: Patmos-Verlag, 1973. 288-304.

Femiano, S. “Holy Spirit in Luther’s Commentary on Galatians.” Canadian Journal of Theology. 8:1 (1962): 43-48.

Fink, David C. “Martin Luther’s Reading of Galatians.” In, Reformation Readings of Paul: Explorations in History and Exegesis. Edited by Michael Allen and Jonathan Lindbaugh. IVP Academic, 2015. 23-48.

Garcia, Javier A. “A Critique of Mannermaa on Luther and Galatians.” Lutheran Quarterly. ns 27:1 (2013): 33-55.

Garcia, Javier A. “‘Not an Idle Quality of an Empty Husk in the Heart’”: A Critique of Tuomo Mannermaa on Luther and Galatians.” In, Galatians and Christian Theology: Justification, the Gospel, and Ethics in Paul’s Letter. Edited by Mark W. Elliott, et al. Baker Academic, 2014. 132-142.

Genderen, J van. “Luthers versie op wet en evangelie: met name in het grote commentaar op de brief aan de galaten.” In, Luther en het gereformeerd Protestantisme. The Hague: Uitgeverij Boekencentrum B V, 1982. 249-282.

Gritsch, Eric W. “Martin Luther’s Commentary on Gal 5,2-24, 1519 (WA 2,574-597) and Sermon on Gal 4,1-7, 1522 (WA 10 I 1,325-378).” In, Freiheit als Liebe bei Martin Luther (Freedom as Love in Martin Luther). Edited by Dennis D. Bielfeldt. Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang, 1995. 105-111.

Gerdes, Oder Hayo. “Luther und Augustin uber den Streit zwischen Petrus und Paulus zu Antiochien (Gal 2, 11ff).” Luther—Jahrbuch. 29 (1962): 9-24.

Hafemann, Scott. “Yaein: Yes and No to Luther’s Reading of Galatians 3:6-14.” In, Galatians and Christian Theology: Justification, the Gospel, and Ethics in Paul’s Letter. Edited by Mark W. Elliott, et al. Baker Academic, 2014. 117-131.

Hagen, Kenneth. “Did Peter Err? The Text is the Best Judge: Luther on Gal 2:11.” In, Augustine, the Harvest, and Theology (1300-1650): Essays Dedicated to Heiko Augustinus Oberman in Honor of His Sixtieth Birthday. Edited by Kenneth Hagen. Leiden: E J Brill, 1990. 110-126.

Hagen, Kenneth. Luther’s Approach to Scripture as Seen in His “Commentaries” on Galatians, 1519-1538. Tübingen: J.C.B. Mohr, 1993. 3161459776, 9783161459771.

Holmes, Arthur B. “Conscience as Soteriological Battlefield: The Concept of Conscientia Operative in Luther’s Galatians Lectures of 1531.” Drew Gateway. 42:1 (1971): 51.

Hultgren, Arland J. “Luther on Galatians.” Word & World. 20:3 (2000): 232-238.

Jacobi, Thorsten. “Christen heissen Freie”: Luthers Freiheitsaussagen in den Jahren 1515-1519. (Beiträge zur historischen Theologie; 101) Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck, 1997.

Just, Arthur A. Jr. “The Faith of Christ: A Lutheran Appropriation of Richard Hays’s Proposal.” Concordia Theological Quarterly. 70:1 (2006): 3-15.

http://www.ctsfw.net/media/pdfs/justfaithofchrist.pdf

Kim, Sun-young. Luther on Faith and Love: Christ and the Law in the 1535 Galatians Commentary. Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 2014. 145148772X, 9781451487725.

Kleinknecht, Hermann. Gemeinschaft ohne Bedingungen: Kirche und Rechtfertigung in Luthers grosser Galaterbrief-Vorlesung von 1531. (Calwer theologische Monographien. Reihe B,

Systematische Theologie und Kirchengeschichte; 7) Stuttgart: Calwer Verlag, 1981. 3766806793.

Koivisto, Jussi Kalervo. “Martin Luther’s Conception of fascinare (Gal. 3:1).” Biblical Interpretation. 19:4-5 (2011): 471-495.

Kolb, Robert. “The Influence of Luther’s Galatians Commentary of 1535 on Later Sixteenth-Century Lutheran Commentaries on Galatians.” In, Archiv für Reformationsgeschichte. 84 (1993): 156-184.

Krejberg, Jens S. “Lovens ‘rette brug’ i den store Galaterbrevskommentar.” Martin Luther – i kamp for troen. Fredericia: Lohses Forlag, 1983. 60-72.

Kunze, Johannes. Erasmus und Luther: Der Einfluss des Erasmus auf die Kommentierung des Galaterbriefes und der Psalmen durch Luther 1519-1521. (Arbeiten zur historischen und systematischen Theologie) Lit Publishing, 2000. 3825848884, 9783825848880

Linebaugh, Jonathan A. “The Christo-Centrism of Faith in Christ: Martin Luther’s Reading of Galatians 2.16,19-20.” New Testament Studies. 59:4 (2013): 535-544.

Luther, Martin. Luther’s Works Volume 26. Lectures on Galatians 1535: Chapters 1-4. Edited by Jaroslav Pelikan and Walter A. Hansen. Translated by Jaroslav Pelikan. St. Loius: Concordia, 1963.

Luther, Martin. Luther’s Works Volume 27. Lectures on Galatians 1535: Chapters 5-6. Lectures on Galatians 1519: Chapters 1-6. Edited by Jaroslav Pelikan and Walter A. Hansen. Translated by Jaroslav Pelikan and Richard Jungkuntz. St. Loius: Concordia, 1964.

Mannermaa, Tuomo. Christ Present in Faith: Luther’s View of Justification. Minneapolis: Fortress. 2005.

Manns, Peter. “Absolute and Incarnate Faith–Luther on Justification in the Galatians’ Commentary of 1531-1535.” In Catholic Scholars Dialogue with Luther. Edited by Jared Wicks. Chicago: Loyola University Press, 1970. 121-156.

Maschke, Timothy. “The Authority of Scripture: Luther’s Approach to Allegory in Galatians.” Logia. 4:2 (1995): 25-31.

Mau, Rudolf. “Liebe als gelebte Freiheit der Christen: Luthers Auslegung von G 5,13-24 im Kommentar von 1519.” Lutherjahrbuch. 59 (1992): 11-37.

Parker, Thomas D. “The Interpretation of Scripture I. A Comparison of Calvin and Luther on Galatians.” Interpretation. 17:1 (1963): 61-75.

Parry, David. “John Bunyan and Edwin Sandys on Luther’s Galatians Commentary.” Notes and Queries. 61 (259) (3) ( 2014): 377-380.

Patkus, Ronald Dennis. “Biblical Commentary as Reformation Commodity: The Role of the Paratext in Luther’s Galatians.” Reformation. 13 (2008): 51-75.

Payne, J. Barton. “The Significance of Lutheranizing Changes in Erasmus’ Interpretation of Paul’s Letters to the Romans and the Galatians.” In, Histoire de l’exégèse au XVIe siècle: Textes du Colloque International, Genève, 1976. (Etudes de philologie et d’histoire; 34). Edited by  Olivier Fatio, and Pierre Fraenkel. Geneva: Librairie Droz, 1978. 312-330.

Peura, Simo. “Iustitia christiana in Luthers später Auslegung des Galaterbriefs (1531/1535).” Lutherjahrbuch. 71 (2004): 179-210.

Porter, Lawrence B. “Luther on Church Unity: The Commentary on Galatians (1535).” Mid-Stream. 20:2 (1981): 159-176.

Rosebrock, Matthew. “Luther’s Visual Theology: The Lectures on Galatians and Cranach’s Law and Gospel Paintings.” Concordia Journal. 42:4 (2016): 332-339.

Schott, Erdmann. “Lex paedagogus noster fuit in Christo Jesu (Vulgata): Zu Luthers Auslegung von Gal 3:24.” Theologische Literaturzeitung. 95:8 (1970): 561-570.

Seifrid, Mark A. “Paul, Luther, and Justification in Gal 2:15-21.” Westminster Theological Journal. 65:2 (2003): 215-230.

Steindl, Helmut. “Gott, Mensch und Gesetz: zur Unerfüllbarkeit des Gesetzes nach Luthers grosser Galaterbriefvorlesung.” Freiburger Zeitschrift für Philosophie und Theologie. 30:1-2 (1983): 385-401.

Strelow, Luisivan V. “The Relationship of Christ and Faith in Luther’s Great Galatians Commentary (1531/1535), Section 2:16-21.” Concordia Seminary; S.T.M. Thesis, 1991

Taube, Roselies. Gott und das Ich: erörtert in einer Auseinandersetzung mit Luthers Lehre über Glaube und Liebe in seinem Galater-Kommentar (1531/35). (Europäische Hochschulschriften. Reihe XXIII, Theologie; 259) New York: P. Lang, 1986.

**Vind, Anna. “Luther’s Commentary on Galatians 1519.” Lutherjahrbuch. 80 (2013): 248-251.

Volz, Hans. “Eine neue studentische Nachschrift von Luthers erster Galaterbriefvorlesung von 1516/17.” Zeitschrift für Kirchengeschichte. 66:1-2 (1954-1955): 72-96.

Wengert, Timothy. “Martin Luther on Galatians 3:6-14: Justification by Curses and Blessings.” In, Galatians and Christian Theology: Justification, the Gospel, and Ethics in Paul’s Letter. Edited by Mark W. Elliott, et al. Baker Academic, 2014. 91-116.

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One in Christ Jesus: Essays on Early Christianity and “All That Jazz.”

CASCADE_TemplateMatson, David Lertis and K.C. Richardson, eds. One in Christ Jesus: Essays on Early Christianity and “All That Jazz,” in Honor of S. Scott Bartchy. Eugene: Wipf and Stock, 2014. 1625641745, 9781625641748.

This book has a number of articles that relate directly to Galatians which I have listed below. You can also read the first few on the publisher’s website.

Russell, A. Sue. “Galatians 3:28 beyond Status and Role: Living Anti-Structurally within Structure.” 1-19.

Stegemann, Wolfgang. “Hierachisierung und Relativierung multipler Identitäten in Galater 3:28.” 20-34.

Duling, Dennis C. “Social-Scientific Comments on ‘Neither Judean nor Greek’ (Gal 3:28).” 35-68.

Adewuya, J. Ayodeji. “Galatians 3:28 and the African Story.” 184-198.

Mason, Robert James. “Galatians 3:28: An Aspect of Eschatological Asceticism in Paul.” 222-239.

Galatians and Christian Theology: Justification, the Gospel, and Ethics in Paul’s Letter

9780801049514Elliott, Mark W, Scott J. Hafemann, N.T. Wright, and John Frederick, eds. Galatians and Christian Theology: Justification, the Gospel, and Ethics in Paul’s Letter. Baker Academic, 2014. 0801049512, 9780801049514.

Wright, N.T. “Messiahship in Galatians.” 3-23.

Novenson, Matthew V. “Paul’s Former Occupation in Iodaismos.” 24-39.

Pollman, Karla and Mark W. Elliott. “Galatians in the Early Church.” 40-61.

Söding, Thomas. “Justification and Participation: Ecumenical Dimensions of Galatians.” 62-81.

Gombis, Timothy G. “Arguing with Scripture in Galatia: Galatians 3:10-14 as a Series of Ad Hoc Arguments.” 82-90.

Wengert, Timothy. “Martin Luther on Galatians 3:6-14: Justification by Curses and Blessings.” 91-116.

Hafemann, Scott. “Yaein: Yes and No to Luther’s Reading of Galatians 3:6-14.” 117-131.

Garcia, Javier A. “‘Not an Idle Quality of an Empty Husk in the Heart’”: A Critique of Tuomo Mannermaa on Luther and Galatians.” 132-142.

Elliott, Mark W. “Judaism, Reformation Theology, and Justification.” 143-158.

McCormack, Bruce. “Can We Still Speak of ‘Justification by Faith’? An In-House Debate with Apocalyptic Readings of Paul.” 159-184.

Gaventa, Beverly Roberts. “The Singularity of the Gospel Revisited.” 187-199.

Hays, Richard B. “Apocalyptic Poiēsis in Galatians: Paternity, Passion, and Participation.” 200-219.

Cover, Michael B. “‘Now and Above; Then and Now’ (Gal. 4:21-31): Platonizing and Apocalyptic Polarities in Paul’s Eschatology.” 220-229.

van Driel, Edwin Chr. “Christ in Paul’s Narrative: Salvation History, Apocalyptic Invasion and Supralapsarian Theology.” 230-238.

Still, Todd D. “‘In the Fullness of Time’ (Gal. 4:4): Chronology and Theology in Galatians.” 239-248.

Sumner, Darren O. “Karl Barth and ‘The Fullness of Time’”: Eternity and Divine Intent in the Epistle to the Galatians.” 249-257.

Swain, Scott R. “‘Heirs through God: Galatians 4:4-7 and the Doctrine of the Trinity.” 258-267.

O’Donovan, Oliver. “Flesh and Spirit.” 271-284.

Rabens, Volker. “‘Indicative and Imperative’ as the Substructure of Paul’s Theology-and-Ethics in Galatians? A Discussion of Divine and Human Agency in Paul.” 285-305.

Barclay, John M.G. “Grace and Countercultural Reckoning of Worth: Community Construction in Galatians 5-6.” 306-317.

Aletti, Jean-Noël. “Paul’s Exhortations in Galatians 5:16-25: From the Apostle’s Techniques to His Theology.” 318-334.

Zahl, Simeon. “The Drama of Agency: Affective Augustinianism and Galatians.” 335-352.

Kamell, Mariam J. “Life in the Spirit and Life in Wisdom: Reading Galatians and James as a Dialogue.” 353-363.

A few newer resources to mention

Wow, has it really been that long?!? Obviously a few things have been published since I last blogged. Here are a few newer resources that you might want to have a look at. Listed by author.

Byrne, Brendan. “Jerusalem’s Above and Below: A Critique of J L Martyn’s Interpretation of the Hagar-Sarah Allegory in Gal 4.21-5.1.” New Testament Studies. 60:2 (2014): 215-231

Carlson, Stephen C. “‘For Sinai is a Mountain in Arabia’: A Note on the Text of Galatians 4,25.” Zeitschrift für die neutestamentliche Wissenschaft und die Kunde der älteren Kirche. 105:1 (2014): 80-101.

Carlson, Stephen C. The Text of Galatians and Its History. (Wissenschaftliche Untersuchungen Zum Neuen Testament 2.Reihe). Mohr Siebeck, 2014. 3161533232. 9783161533235.

deSilva, David A. Galatians: A Handbook on the Greek Text. (Baylor Handbook on the Greek New Testament) Baylor University Press. 2014. 160258317X, 9781602583177.

Ehorn, Seth. “Galatians 1:8 and Paul’s Reading of Abraham’s Story.” Journal of Theological Studies. 64:2 (2013): 439-444.

Elliott, Mark W, Scott J. Hafemann, N.T. Wright, and John Frederick, eds. Galatians and Christian Theology: Justification, the Gospel, and Ethics in Paul’s Letter. Baker Academic, 2014. 0801049512, 9780801049514.

Hardin, Justin K. “‘If I Still Proclaim Circumcision?’ (Galatians 5:11a): Paul, the Law, and Gentile Circumcision.” Journal for the Study of Paul and His Letters. 3:2 (2013): 145-163.

Linebaugh, Jonathan A. “The Christo-Centrism of Faith in Christ: Martin Luther’s Reading of Galatians 2.16,19-20.” New Testament Studies. 59:4 (2013): 535-544.

Matson, David Lertis and K. C. Richardson, eds. One in Christ Jesus: Essays on Early Christianity and ”All That Jazz,” in Honor of S. Scott Bartchy. Pickwick Publications, 2014. 1625641745, 9781625641748.

Nordgaard, Stefan. “Paul and the Provenance of the Law: The Case of Galatians 3,19-20.” Zeitschrift für die neutestamentliche Wissenschaft und die Kunde der älteren Kirche. 105:1 (2014): 64-79.

Starling, David I. “The Children of the Barren Woman: Galatians 4:27 and the Hermeneutics of Justification.” Journal for the Study of Paul and His Letters. 3:1 (2013): 93-109.

Thornhill, Anthony Chadwick. “‘Spheres of Influence’ in the Epistle to the Galatians.” Horizons in Biblical Theology. 36:1 (2014): 21-41

Festschrift for DA Carson includes Moo on Justification in Galatians

As nice as it was to read that Crossway is publishing a Festschrift for DA Carson it was even nicer to see that it includes an article by Douglas Moo on Justification in Galatians. BEST OF ALL – it’s available online from Crossway for download. It doesn’t get any better than that!! 🙂

Moo, Douglas J. “Justification in Galatians.” In, Understanding the Times: New Testament Studies in the 21st Century. Essays in Honor of D.A.Carson on the Occasion of His 65th Birthday. Edited by Andreas Köstenberger and Robert Yarbrough. Wheaton: Crossway, 2011. 160-195.

Rhetorical Structure of Galatians

Since the 1970s interpretation of Galatians has been influenced by H. D. Betz’s work on rhetoric. Below I provide a list of several examples of how Galatians has been divided according to rhetorical patterns. Skip to the bottom for the full bibliography and a conclusion.

Hans Dieter Betz (1975, 1979):
1:1-5 Epistolary Prescript
1:6-11 Exordium
1:12-2:14 Narratio
2:15-21 Propositio
3:1-4:31 Confirmatio (Probatio); [3:19-25 Digressio]
5:1-6:10 Exhortatio (Paraenesis)
6:11-18 Epistolary Postscript

Bernard H. Brinsmead (1982):
1:1-5 Epistolary Prescript
1:6-11 Exordium (Prooemium)
1:12-2:14 Narratio
2:15-21 Propositio
3:1-5 Interrogatio
3:6-4:31 Confirmatio (Probatio)
5:1-6:10 Exhoratio (Refutatio)
6:11-18 Epistolary Postscript

Hans Hübner (1984):
1:1-5 Epistolary Prescript
1:6-11 Exordium
1:12-2:14 Narratio
2:15-21 Propositio
3:1-5 Introduction to Probatio
3:6-5:12 Confirmatio (Probatio)
5:13-6:10 Exhortatio (Paraenesis)
6:11-18 Epistolary Postscript

George A. Kennedy (1984):
1:6-10 Exordium
1:11-5:1 Confirmatio
5:2-6:10 Exhortatio
6:11-18 Peroratio

James D. Hester (1986):
1:1-5 Epistolary Prescript
1:6-10 Exordium (Prooemium)
1:11-12 Stasis
1:13-14 Transitio
1:15-2:10 Narratio
2:11-14 Digressio
2:15-21 Probatio
3:1-4:31 Confirmatio (Probatio)
5:1-6:10 Exhortatio (Refutatio)
6:11-18 Epistolary Postscript

Robert G. Hall (1987):
1:1-5 Exordium
1:6-9 Propositio
1:10-6:10 Confirmatio
6:11-18 Peroratio

Charles H. Cosgrove (1988):
(1:1-5) Opening
(1:6-10) Thanksgiving parody
(1:11-6:10) Body
Part One: Apostolic Autobiography (1:11-2:21)
Part Two: Central Argument (3:1-4:30)
Part Three: Apostolic Exhortation (4:31-6:10)
(4:31-5:12) Opening
(5:13-6:10) Paraenesis
(6:11-17) Postscript
(6:18) Closing Benediction

François Vouga (1988):
1:6-11 Exordium
1:12-2:14 Narratio
2:14-21 Propositio
3:1-4:31 Confirmatio
5:1-6:10 Exhortatio

Joop Smit (1989):
1:6-12 Exordium
1:13-2:21 Narratio
3:1-4:11 Confirmatio
4:12-5:12 Peroratio
Conclusio: Part 1: Conquestio (4:12-20)
Conclusio: Part 2: Enumeratio (4:21-5:6)
Conclusio: Part 3: Indignatio (5:7-12)
6:11-18 Amplificatio

Richard Longenecker (1990):
1:1-5 Salutation
1:6-10 Exordium
1:11-2:14 Narratio
2:15-21 Propositio
3:1-4:11 Probatio
4:12-5:12 Exhortatio Part 1
5:13-6:10 Exhortatio Part 2
6:11-18 Superscription

Burton L. Mack (1990):
1:6-10 Exordium
1:11-2:14 Narratio
2:14-3:5 Propositio
3:6-4:7 Confirmatio
4:8-20 Exhortatio
[5:13-6:10 is an interpolation]

Jürgen Becker (1992):
1:6-9 Exordium
1:11-2:14a Narratio
2:14b-21 Propositio
3:1-5:12 Probatio
5:13-6:10 Paraenesis

Walter B. Russell (1993):
1:1-5 Epistolary Prescript
1:6-10 Exordium
1:11-6:10 Confirmatio / Probatio
6:11-18 Epistolary Postscript / Conclusio)

Lorin Lee Cranford (1994):
1:1-5 Praescriptio
1:6-10 Exordium
1:11-2:21 Narratio
3:1-4:31 Probatio
5:1-6:10 Exhortatio
6:11-18 Conclusio

Ben Witherington (1998):
1:1-5 Epistolary Prescript
1:6-10 Exordium
1:11-2:14 Narratio
2:15-21 Propositio
3:1-6:10 Probatio
6:11 Paul’s Autograph
6:12-17 Peroratio

Not everyone agrees that Galatians exhibits a “rhetorical” outline. Philip H. Kern states, “Not only does rhetorical analysis fail to produce agreement concerning the outline, but even more, the epistle does not conform to the descriptions culled from the handbooks” (118).

Donald Francois Tolmie summarises the various positions well in his 2004 dissertation which is available online. There are various hybrid models available some of which seem to have validity. Any current commentator on Galatians needs to take rhetoric into account but not in the pure form seen by Betz and those who follow his structure.

James Dunn is quite write (pun intended) when he concludes, “there is a danger that too much emphasis on rhetorical considerations may blur the extent to which the letter is driven by theological logic and passion. It is the theological issues and logic which are likely to have determined the main line and structure of the argument, particularly in the central section (chs. 3–4), more than anything else, though we will find plenty of evidence of Paul’s rhetorical skill in pressing home his case” (20). There is much more that could be said on this issue and the amount written is enormous. However, it seems wise to concede that although Paul was writing within the conventions of the day he was not forming a deliberative speech and did not intend to produce a model letter as mandated by rhetorical handbooks.

Betz, Hans Dieter. “The Literary Composition and Function of Paul’s Letter to the Galatians.” New Testament Studies. 21:3 (April 1975): 353-379.

Betz, Hans Dieter. Galatians: A Commentary on Paul’s Letter to the Churches in Galatia. Hermenia Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1979.

Brinsmead, Bernard Hungerford. Galatians: Dialogical Response to Opponents. (SBL Dissertation Series; 65). Chico: Scholars Press, 1982.

Hübner, Hans. “Der Galaterbrief und das Verhältnis von antiker Rhetorik und Epistolographie.” Theologische Literaturzeitung. 109:4 (1984): 241-250.

Kennedy, George A. “Chapter Seven, Thessalonians, Galatians, Romans.” In New Testament Interpretation Through Rhetorical Criticism. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1984. 141-156.

Hester, James G. “The Use and Influence of Rhetoric in Galatians.” Theologische Zeitschrift. 42:5 (1986): 386-408.

Hall, Robert G. “The Rhetorical Outline for Galatians: A Reconsideration.” Journal of Biblical Literature. 106:2 (1987): 277-287.

Cosgrove, Charles H. The Cross and the Spirit: A Study in the Argument and Theology of
Galatians. Macon: Mercer University Press, 1988.

Vouga, François. “Zur rhetorischen Gattung des Galaterbriefes.” Zeitschrift für die neutestamentliche Wissenschaft und die Kunde der älteren Kirche. 79:3-4 (1988): 291-292.

Smit, Joop F. M. “The Letter of Paul to the Galatians: A Deliberative Speech.” New Testament Studies. 35:1 (1989): 1-26.

Smit, Joop F. M. “The Letter of Paul to the Galatians: A Deliberative Speech.” In The Galatians Debate: Contemporary Issues in Rhetorical and Historical Interpretation. Edited by Mark D. Nanos. Peabody: Hendrickson, 2002. 39-59.
Longenecker, Richard N. Galatians. (Word Biblical Commentary; 42) Waco: Word Books, 1990.

Mack, Burton L. Rhetoric and the New Testament. Guides to Biblical Scholarship. Minneapolis: Fortress, 1990.

Becker, Jürgen. Paulus. Der Apostel der Völker. Tübingen: Mohr-Siebeck, 1992. 288-294.

Russell, Walter B. “Rhetorical Analysis of the Book of Galatians, Part 1.” Bibliotheca Sacra. 150:599 (1993): 341-358.

Russell, Walter B. “Rhetorical Analysis of the Book of Galatians, Part 2.” Bibliotheca Sacra. 150:600 (1993): 416-439.

Cranford, Lorin Lee. “A Rhetorical Reading of Galatians.” Southwestern Journal of Theology. 37:1 (1994): 4-10.

Martin, Troy. “Apostasy to Paganism: The Rhetorical Stasis of the Galatian Controversy.” Journal of Biblical Literature. 114:3 (1995): 437-461.

Witherington III, Ben. Grace in Galatia: A Commentary on Paul’s Letter to the Galatians. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1998.

Kern, Philip H. Rhetoric and Galatians: Assessing an Approach to Paul’s Epistle. (Society for New Testament Studies Monograph Series; 101). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999.

Tolmie, Donald Francois. A Rhetorical Analysis of the Letter to the Galatians. PhD; University of the Free State Bloemfontein, South Africa, 2004. [Available online]

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Busy week in Galatians blogging

I’ve been taking an intensive linguistics course this week and have barely been able to even keep up with all the posting on Galatians. When it rains it pours. For your edification here’s what’s being discussed.

Stephen C. Carlson writes on “Translating Σάρξ in Gal 3:3.”

Jason Staples replies on why “‘Flesh’ is not ‘Human effort’ in Gal 3:3.”

There has been a lot written on the flesh/Spirit contrast in Galatians but they both focus on 3:3.

Brian LePort takes a look at “Translating προεγράφη in Galatians 3.1.” LePort concludes his post with “Is it possible that Gal. 3.1 is some sort of reference to Jesus being portrayed from Scripture? What does Paul mean by being publicly portrayed?” After many replies he posted a second time…”Is προεγράφη in Galatians 3.1 a Reference to Drawing/Sketching the Crucifixion?”

LePort has obviously been busy studying Galatians 3 this week as he also posts on “An Oft Ignored Definition of the Gospel: Galatians 3.8.” Both posts have several comments from knowledgeable bloggers so they are worth checking out.