Tag Archives: Galatians

One in Christ Jesus: Essays on Early Christianity and “All That Jazz.”

CASCADE_TemplateMatson, David Lertis and K.C. Richardson, eds. One in Christ Jesus: Essays on Early Christianity and “All That Jazz,” in Honor of S. Scott Bartchy. Eugene: Wipf and Stock, 2014. 1625641745, 9781625641748.

This book has a number of articles that relate directly to Galatians which I have listed below. You can also read the first few on the publisher’s website.

Russell, A. Sue. “Galatians 3:28 beyond Status and Role: Living Anti-Structurally within Structure.” 1-19.

Stegemann, Wolfgang. “Hierachisierung und Relativierung multipler Identitäten in Galater 3:28.” 20-34.

Duling, Dennis C. “Social-Scientific Comments on ‘Neither Judean nor Greek’ (Gal 3:28).” 35-68.

Adewuya, J. Ayodeji. “Galatians 3:28 and the African Story.” 184-198.

Mason, Robert James. “Galatians 3:28: An Aspect of Eschatological Asceticism in Paul.” 222-239.

Galatians and Christian Theology: Justification, the Gospel, and Ethics in Paul’s Letter

9780801049514Elliott, Mark W, Scott J. Hafemann, N.T. Wright, and John Frederick, eds. Galatians and Christian Theology: Justification, the Gospel, and Ethics in Paul’s Letter. Baker Academic, 2014. 0801049512, 9780801049514.

Wright, N.T. “Messiahship in Galatians.” 3-23.

Novenson, Matthew V. “Paul’s Former Occupation in Iodaismos.” 24-39.

Pollman, Karla and Mark W. Elliott. “Galatians in the Early Church.” 40-61.

Söding, Thomas. “Justification and Participation: Ecumenical Dimensions of Galatians.” 62-81.

Gombis, Timothy G. “Arguing with Scripture in Galatia: Galatians 3:10-14 as a Series of Ad Hoc Arguments.” 82-90.

Wengert, Timothy. “Martin Luther on Galatians 3:6-14: Justification by Curses and Blessings.” 91-116.

Hafemann, Scott. “Yaein: Yes and No to Luther’s Reading of Galatians 3:6-14.” 117-131.

Garcia, Javier A. “‘Not an Idle Quality of an Empty Husk in the Heart’”: A Critique of Tuomo Mannermaa on Luther and Galatians.” 132-142.

Elliott, Mark W. “Judaism, Reformation Theology, and Justification.” 143-158.

McCormack, Bruce. “Can We Still Speak of ‘Justification by Faith’? An In-House Debate with Apocalyptic Readings of Paul.” 159-184.

Gaventa, Beverly Roberts. “The Singularity of the Gospel Revisited.” 187-199.

Hays, Richard B. “Apocalyptic Poiēsis in Galatians: Paternity, Passion, and Participation.” 200-219.

Cover, Michael B. “‘Now and Above; Then and Now’ (Gal. 4:21-31): Platonizing and Apocalyptic Polarities in Paul’s Eschatology.” 220-229.

van Driel, Edwin Chr. “Christ in Paul’s Narrative: Salvation History, Apocalyptic Invasion and Supralapsarian Theology.” 230-238.

Still, Todd D. “‘In the Fullness of Time’ (Gal. 4:4): Chronology and Theology in Galatians.” 239-248.

Sumner, Darren O. “Karl Barth and ‘The Fullness of Time’”: Eternity and Divine Intent in the Epistle to the Galatians.” 249-257.

Swain, Scott R. “‘Heirs through God: Galatians 4:4-7 and the Doctrine of the Trinity.” 258-267.

O’Donovan, Oliver. “Flesh and Spirit.” 271-284.

Rabens, Volker. “‘Indicative and Imperative’ as the Substructure of Paul’s Theology-and-Ethics in Galatians? A Discussion of Divine and Human Agency in Paul.” 285-305.

Barclay, John M.G. “Grace and Countercultural Reckoning of Worth: Community Construction in Galatians 5-6.” 306-317.

Aletti, Jean-Noël. “Paul’s Exhortations in Galatians 5:16-25: From the Apostle’s Techniques to His Theology.” 318-334.

Zahl, Simeon. “The Drama of Agency: Affective Augustinianism and Galatians.” 335-352.

Kamell, Mariam J. “Life in the Spirit and Life in Wisdom: Reading Galatians and James as a Dialogue.” 353-363.

A few newer resources to mention

Wow, has it really been that long?!? Obviously a few things have been published since I last blogged. Here are a few newer resources that you might want to have a look at. Listed by author.

Byrne, Brendan. “Jerusalem’s Above and Below: A Critique of J L Martyn’s Interpretation of the Hagar-Sarah Allegory in Gal 4.21-5.1.” New Testament Studies. 60:2 (2014): 215-231

Carlson, Stephen C. “‘For Sinai is a Mountain in Arabia’: A Note on the Text of Galatians 4,25.” Zeitschrift für die neutestamentliche Wissenschaft und die Kunde der älteren Kirche. 105:1 (2014): 80-101.

Carlson, Stephen C. The Text of Galatians and Its History. (Wissenschaftliche Untersuchungen Zum Neuen Testament 2.Reihe). Mohr Siebeck, 2014. 3161533232. 9783161533235.

deSilva, David A. Galatians: A Handbook on the Greek Text. (Baylor Handbook on the Greek New Testament) Baylor University Press. 2014. 160258317X, 9781602583177.

Ehorn, Seth. “Galatians 1:8 and Paul’s Reading of Abraham’s Story.” Journal of Theological Studies. 64:2 (2013): 439-444.

Elliott, Mark W, Scott J. Hafemann, N.T. Wright, and John Frederick, eds. Galatians and Christian Theology: Justification, the Gospel, and Ethics in Paul’s Letter. Baker Academic, 2014. 0801049512, 9780801049514.

Hardin, Justin K. “‘If I Still Proclaim Circumcision?’ (Galatians 5:11a): Paul, the Law, and Gentile Circumcision.” Journal for the Study of Paul and His Letters. 3:2 (2013): 145-163.

Linebaugh, Jonathan A. “The Christo-Centrism of Faith in Christ: Martin Luther’s Reading of Galatians 2.16,19-20.” New Testament Studies. 59:4 (2013): 535-544.

Matson, David Lertis and K. C. Richardson, eds. One in Christ Jesus: Essays on Early Christianity and ”All That Jazz,” in Honor of S. Scott Bartchy. Pickwick Publications, 2014. 1625641745, 9781625641748.

Nordgaard, Stefan. “Paul and the Provenance of the Law: The Case of Galatians 3,19-20.” Zeitschrift für die neutestamentliche Wissenschaft und die Kunde der älteren Kirche. 105:1 (2014): 64-79.

Starling, David I. “The Children of the Barren Woman: Galatians 4:27 and the Hermeneutics of Justification.” Journal for the Study of Paul and His Letters. 3:1 (2013): 93-109.

Thornhill, Anthony Chadwick. “‘Spheres of Influence’ in the Epistle to the Galatians.” Horizons in Biblical Theology. 36:1 (2014): 21-41

Festschrift for DA Carson includes Moo on Justification in Galatians

As nice as it was to read that Crossway is publishing a Festschrift for DA Carson it was even nicer to see that it includes an article by Douglas Moo on Justification in Galatians. BEST OF ALL – it’s available online from Crossway for download. It doesn’t get any better than that!! 🙂

Moo, Douglas J. “Justification in Galatians.” In, Understanding the Times: New Testament Studies in the 21st Century. Essays in Honor of D.A.Carson on the Occasion of His 65th Birthday. Edited by Andreas Köstenberger and Robert Yarbrough. Wheaton: Crossway, 2011. 160-195.

Rhetorical Structure of Galatians

Since the 1970s interpretation of Galatians has been influenced by H. D. Betz’s work on rhetoric. Below I provide a list of several examples of how Galatians has been divided according to rhetorical patterns. Skip to the bottom for the full bibliography and a conclusion.

Hans Dieter Betz (1975, 1979):
1:1-5 Epistolary Prescript
1:6-11 Exordium
1:12-2:14 Narratio
2:15-21 Propositio
3:1-4:31 Confirmatio (Probatio); [3:19-25 Digressio]
5:1-6:10 Exhortatio (Paraenesis)
6:11-18 Epistolary Postscript

Bernard H. Brinsmead (1982):
1:1-5 Epistolary Prescript
1:6-11 Exordium (Prooemium)
1:12-2:14 Narratio
2:15-21 Propositio
3:1-5 Interrogatio
3:6-4:31 Confirmatio (Probatio)
5:1-6:10 Exhoratio (Refutatio)
6:11-18 Epistolary Postscript

Hans Hübner (1984):
1:1-5 Epistolary Prescript
1:6-11 Exordium
1:12-2:14 Narratio
2:15-21 Propositio
3:1-5 Introduction to Probatio
3:6-5:12 Confirmatio (Probatio)
5:13-6:10 Exhortatio (Paraenesis)
6:11-18 Epistolary Postscript

George A. Kennedy (1984):
1:6-10 Exordium
1:11-5:1 Confirmatio
5:2-6:10 Exhortatio
6:11-18 Peroratio

James D. Hester (1986):
1:1-5 Epistolary Prescript
1:6-10 Exordium (Prooemium)
1:11-12 Stasis
1:13-14 Transitio
1:15-2:10 Narratio
2:11-14 Digressio
2:15-21 Probatio
3:1-4:31 Confirmatio (Probatio)
5:1-6:10 Exhortatio (Refutatio)
6:11-18 Epistolary Postscript

Robert G. Hall (1987):
1:1-5 Exordium
1:6-9 Propositio
1:10-6:10 Confirmatio
6:11-18 Peroratio

Charles H. Cosgrove (1988):
(1:1-5) Opening
(1:6-10) Thanksgiving parody
(1:11-6:10) Body
Part One: Apostolic Autobiography (1:11-2:21)
Part Two: Central Argument (3:1-4:30)
Part Three: Apostolic Exhortation (4:31-6:10)
(4:31-5:12) Opening
(5:13-6:10) Paraenesis
(6:11-17) Postscript
(6:18) Closing Benediction

François Vouga (1988):
1:6-11 Exordium
1:12-2:14 Narratio
2:14-21 Propositio
3:1-4:31 Confirmatio
5:1-6:10 Exhortatio

Joop Smit (1989):
1:6-12 Exordium
1:13-2:21 Narratio
3:1-4:11 Confirmatio
4:12-5:12 Peroratio
Conclusio: Part 1: Conquestio (4:12-20)
Conclusio: Part 2: Enumeratio (4:21-5:6)
Conclusio: Part 3: Indignatio (5:7-12)
6:11-18 Amplificatio

Richard Longenecker (1990):
1:1-5 Salutation
1:6-10 Exordium
1:11-2:14 Narratio
2:15-21 Propositio
3:1-4:11 Probatio
4:12-5:12 Exhortatio Part 1
5:13-6:10 Exhortatio Part 2
6:11-18 Superscription

Burton L. Mack (1990):
1:6-10 Exordium
1:11-2:14 Narratio
2:14-3:5 Propositio
3:6-4:7 Confirmatio
4:8-20 Exhortatio
[5:13-6:10 is an interpolation]

Jürgen Becker (1992):
1:6-9 Exordium
1:11-2:14a Narratio
2:14b-21 Propositio
3:1-5:12 Probatio
5:13-6:10 Paraenesis

Walter B. Russell (1993):
1:1-5 Epistolary Prescript
1:6-10 Exordium
1:11-6:10 Confirmatio / Probatio
6:11-18 Epistolary Postscript / Conclusio)

Lorin Lee Cranford (1994):
1:1-5 Praescriptio
1:6-10 Exordium
1:11-2:21 Narratio
3:1-4:31 Probatio
5:1-6:10 Exhortatio
6:11-18 Conclusio

Ben Witherington (1998):
1:1-5 Epistolary Prescript
1:6-10 Exordium
1:11-2:14 Narratio
2:15-21 Propositio
3:1-6:10 Probatio
6:11 Paul’s Autograph
6:12-17 Peroratio

Not everyone agrees that Galatians exhibits a “rhetorical” outline. Philip H. Kern states, “Not only does rhetorical analysis fail to produce agreement concerning the outline, but even more, the epistle does not conform to the descriptions culled from the handbooks” (118).

Donald Francois Tolmie summarises the various positions well in his 2004 dissertation which is available online. There are various hybrid models available some of which seem to have validity. Any current commentator on Galatians needs to take rhetoric into account but not in the pure form seen by Betz and those who follow his structure.

James Dunn is quite write (pun intended) when he concludes, “there is a danger that too much emphasis on rhetorical considerations may blur the extent to which the letter is driven by theological logic and passion. It is the theological issues and logic which are likely to have determined the main line and structure of the argument, particularly in the central section (chs. 3–4), more than anything else, though we will find plenty of evidence of Paul’s rhetorical skill in pressing home his case” (20). There is much more that could be said on this issue and the amount written is enormous. However, it seems wise to concede that although Paul was writing within the conventions of the day he was not forming a deliberative speech and did not intend to produce a model letter as mandated by rhetorical handbooks.

Betz, Hans Dieter. “The Literary Composition and Function of Paul’s Letter to the Galatians.” New Testament Studies. 21:3 (April 1975): 353-379.

Betz, Hans Dieter. Galatians: A Commentary on Paul’s Letter to the Churches in Galatia. Hermenia Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1979.

Brinsmead, Bernard Hungerford. Galatians: Dialogical Response to Opponents. (SBL Dissertation Series; 65). Chico: Scholars Press, 1982.

Hübner, Hans. “Der Galaterbrief und das Verhältnis von antiker Rhetorik und Epistolographie.” Theologische Literaturzeitung. 109:4 (1984): 241-250.

Kennedy, George A. “Chapter Seven, Thessalonians, Galatians, Romans.” In New Testament Interpretation Through Rhetorical Criticism. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1984. 141-156.

Hester, James G. “The Use and Influence of Rhetoric in Galatians.” Theologische Zeitschrift. 42:5 (1986): 386-408.

Hall, Robert G. “The Rhetorical Outline for Galatians: A Reconsideration.” Journal of Biblical Literature. 106:2 (1987): 277-287.

Cosgrove, Charles H. The Cross and the Spirit: A Study in the Argument and Theology of
Galatians. Macon: Mercer University Press, 1988.

Vouga, François. “Zur rhetorischen Gattung des Galaterbriefes.” Zeitschrift für die neutestamentliche Wissenschaft und die Kunde der älteren Kirche. 79:3-4 (1988): 291-292.

Smit, Joop F. M. “The Letter of Paul to the Galatians: A Deliberative Speech.” New Testament Studies. 35:1 (1989): 1-26.

Smit, Joop F. M. “The Letter of Paul to the Galatians: A Deliberative Speech.” In The Galatians Debate: Contemporary Issues in Rhetorical and Historical Interpretation. Edited by Mark D. Nanos. Peabody: Hendrickson, 2002. 39-59.
Longenecker, Richard N. Galatians. (Word Biblical Commentary; 42) Waco: Word Books, 1990.

Mack, Burton L. Rhetoric and the New Testament. Guides to Biblical Scholarship. Minneapolis: Fortress, 1990.

Becker, Jürgen. Paulus. Der Apostel der Völker. Tübingen: Mohr-Siebeck, 1992. 288-294.

Russell, Walter B. “Rhetorical Analysis of the Book of Galatians, Part 1.” Bibliotheca Sacra. 150:599 (1993): 341-358.

Russell, Walter B. “Rhetorical Analysis of the Book of Galatians, Part 2.” Bibliotheca Sacra. 150:600 (1993): 416-439.

Cranford, Lorin Lee. “A Rhetorical Reading of Galatians.” Southwestern Journal of Theology. 37:1 (1994): 4-10.

Martin, Troy. “Apostasy to Paganism: The Rhetorical Stasis of the Galatian Controversy.” Journal of Biblical Literature. 114:3 (1995): 437-461.

Witherington III, Ben. Grace in Galatia: A Commentary on Paul’s Letter to the Galatians. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1998.

Kern, Philip H. Rhetoric and Galatians: Assessing an Approach to Paul’s Epistle. (Society for New Testament Studies Monograph Series; 101). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999.

Tolmie, Donald Francois. A Rhetorical Analysis of the Letter to the Galatians. PhD; University of the Free State Bloemfontein, South Africa, 2004. [Available online]

Tolmie, Donald François. Persuading the Galatians: A Text-Centred Rhetorical Analysis of a Pauline Letter. Wissenschaftliche Untersuchungen Zum Neuen Testament 2. Reihe 190. J C B Mohr, 2005.

Busy week in Galatians blogging

I’ve been taking an intensive linguistics course this week and have barely been able to even keep up with all the posting on Galatians. When it rains it pours. For your edification here’s what’s being discussed.

Stephen C. Carlson writes on “Translating Σάρξ in Gal 3:3.”

Jason Staples replies on why “‘Flesh’ is not ‘Human effort’ in Gal 3:3.”

There has been a lot written on the flesh/Spirit contrast in Galatians but they both focus on 3:3.

Brian LePort takes a look at “Translating προεγράφη in Galatians 3.1.” LePort concludes his post with “Is it possible that Gal. 3.1 is some sort of reference to Jesus being portrayed from Scripture? What does Paul mean by being publicly portrayed?” After many replies he posted a second time…”Is προεγράφη in Galatians 3.1 a Reference to Drawing/Sketching the Crucifixion?”

LePort has obviously been busy studying Galatians 3 this week as he also posts on “An Oft Ignored Definition of the Gospel: Galatians 3.8.” Both posts have several comments from knowledgeable bloggers so they are worth checking out.

Paul and Corinth; two articles on Galatians


Ekaterini G. Tsalampouni brings word of a new volume published in Greece on Paul and Corinth that includes two articles on Galatians. As you will notice, not all of the articles are in Greek.

Απόστολος Παύλος και Κόρινθος. 1950 χρόνια από τη συγγραφή των επιστολών προς Κορινθίους. Ερμηνεία -Θεολογία – Ιστορία ερμηνείας – Φιλολογία – Φιλοσοφία – Εποχή; Saint Paul and Corinth: 1950 Years Since the Writings of the Epistles to the Corinthians: Exegesis – Theology – History of Interpretation – Philology – Philosophy – St Paul’s Time. International Scholarly Conference Proceedings (Corinth, 23-25 September 2007). Edited by Constantine J. Belezos. Athens: Psichogios Publications (ΨΥΧΟΓΙΟΣ), 2009. There are two volumes: 9789604536597, 9789604536603. A sample of volume two can be seen here.

Without further ado, the two articles are:

Urs von Arx, “Gibt Paulus in 1 Kor 7 eine Interpretation von Gal 3,28? Zugleich ein Beitrag zur relativen Chronologieder Paulusbriefe.” 1.193-222.

Dieter Sänger, “Der Beitrag der Korintherbriefe zur Lokalisierungder Adressaten und zur Datierung des Galaterbriefs.” 2.619-640.